This is caused by the myxoma virus and has been distributed to curtail the number of wild rabbits and try to reduce the damage done to farmers crops. Over the years a number of strains of the disease have developed as the animals become ammune. Vaccinating your rabbit will only cover some of the strains of myxomatosis, not cover them all. So although it is advisable to vaccinate your rabbit it will not be a complete quarantee that your rabbit will not get the disease.
Myxomatosis is carried by fleas and mosquitos. The disease is passed into the blood stream when the insect bites the rabbit. Once bitten the rabbit will go through up to a week incubation period. The first signs of the disease will be sore, puffy eyes and conjunctivitus.
There are other precautions you can take in the general care of your rabbit. Insects are attracted to dirty, smelly areas so you should ensure you keep the hutch clean and regularly scoop out the dirty corners. If your hutch is in an area where there are a lot of insects such as near water, a fly screen on the front of the hutch is a good way of keeping the insects out.
Viral Heomorrhagic Disease (VHD) (Vaccination)
This is another disease introduced by man to curtail the number of wild rabbits, it was first reported in the UK in 1992. It is an incredibly nasty disease which causes liver damage and blood clotting. It is caused by a calcivirus and can cause death within 2 days. The symptoms will be loss of appetite and bleeding from the nose.
The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by direct contact with infected rabbits or through the atmosphere, it can survive for up to 100 days at room temperature. It can also be spread on clothing and footwear so indoor rabbits are still at risk and should be vaccinated.
The vaccine for this is given by your vet about a week after the myxomatosis vaccination and annual boosters are required.
This is a condition caused by the infestation of flies laying their eggs on a dirty rabbit. Flies are attracted to dirt and smell and like to lay their eggs in damp warm places with a source of food. A dirty bottom with soft sticky droppings is usually caused by eating too many greens or something that does not agree with them.
If a rabbit lives in a dirty conditions and has a dirty bottom the flies will lay their eggs on the rear end of the rabbit and once they hatch the larvea begin to eat the flesh around them. This is an extremely painful and nasty death.
Therefore it is very important to check your rabbit on a daily basis to make sure he/she is clean. You must also ensure the hutch is kept clean so the flies are not attracted there in the first place, especially in the summer.
Rabbits produce two kinds of faecal pellets, one is a hard round pellet seen lying around their hutch, the other is soft which you shouldn't see as it is usually produced at night and should be re-ingested by the rabbit.
When a rabbit eats its food it remains in the stomach for several hours before gradually being introduced into the small intestine. Particules that have not been broken down by enzymatic action pass into the caecum. These enter the colon where the particules become surrounded by mucus and form a soft pellet known as 'caecotrophes'.
If you see adnormal amounts of these soft pellets in your rabbit's hutch it is a sign that your rabbit is either being over fed or has eaten something that does not agree with them. It is important that a rabbit re-ingests these caecotrophes to maintain a balanced digestive system.
Loss of Balance/Head Tilt
You may notice your rabbit holding its head at a tilted angle, being unable to stand properly and circling in one direction.
This may be associated with baceterial infections of the middle and inner ear or infections of the brain with the protozoal parasite 'Encephalitozoon cuniculi'.
Rabbits affected by this condition should be kept as quiet as possible with dimmed lighting to avoid self injuries occurring. You should seek help from your vet as soon as possible.
Rabbits are herbivores and naturally obtain their nutrition from plants which can be very tough, therefore rabbits teeth have to be very hard to break down the plant fibers. Similar to horses, rabbits in the wild have to graze many hours a day to obtain sufficient nutrients from plants. Because of this constant wear, rabbit teeth grow continuously throughout their entire life. When rabbits are fed a diet deficient in tough, fibrous plant matter (like hay, grass and vegetables), their teeth are not worn down properly. The individual teeth wear down at different rates, so the teeth cannot meet normally, and the teeth grow in an even more abnormal pattern. Malocclusion is the term for teeth that do not meet normally.
Some rabbits are born with bad teeth; either an underbite, an overbite, or other malformation. Other rabbits are born with normal teeth, but they do not develop normally. Occasionally, malocclusion can be caused by trauma, but most frequently, malocclusions are the result of too little fiber in the diet.
Diagram of a normal rabbits teeth & jaw
Signs to look out for are a decreased appetite, weight loss, reluctance to eat hard food, smelly breath, uneven incisors which means there is a very good chance that the cheek teeth are abnormal as well.
If a problem is suspected it is best to seek advise from your vet. Sometimes it is possible to regularly clip the teeth or in some cases the vet can completely remove the teeth that are causing a problem.
Parasites and worms
Like all animals rabbits can get parasites and worms and need to receive regular preventative treatments.
Cheyletiella: Is a fur mite, it lives in your rabbits fur and usually causes severe dandruff. It can be very itchy and cause redness, scabs and infection.
The rabbit flea: Is not as common as the cat flea, but could be dangerous as they can carry myxomatosis.
Ear Mites: Are caused by Psoroptes cuniculi, which is highly contagious and painful, forming a crust inside the ear canal causing intense itching, such that the rabbit often develops secondary sores, scabs, and infections of the ear.
External parasite problems can be treated using special animal medicated shampoos, powders and regular applications of spot on treatments such as Beaphur anti-parasite or Zeno 450.
E. cuniculi: Is caused by a microscopic parasite. It is widespread across the UK – 50 per cent of apparently healthy rabbits have been exposed to the parasite – and the and the disease is particularly nasty. It can cause head tilt, seizures, kidney disease, hind limb weakness, loss of vision and balance. The parasite is spread by infected urine or from mothers to babies and it can live in the environment for several weeks.
Roundworms: These are white and coiled like a spring. They grow to approximately 100mm and you may see them in your rabbit’s faeces. Rabbits pick up roundworms by eating their larvae and the adult worm then develops inside the body with worms and eggs being passed out in faeces. These eggs then develop into larvae and the cycle starts again.
Tapeworms: These are white and resemble flat segments filled with moving eggs that look like grains of rice. You might see tapeworm segments in faeces or near your pet’s anus. Rabbits are infected with tapeworm by swallowing fleas while grooming. Once inside the rabbit’s gut, the worm larvae carried by the flea develops into an adult worm that can grow to 5 metres in length.
Internal parasites/worms can be treated using an effective wormer such as Panacur.
There are many illnesses a rabbit can get but as long as you care for your pet and keep them healthy and happy you are doing the right thing. Rabbits are good at hiding illnesses so it is wise to be quite vigilant.
There are a number of books you can purchase with guidance on caring for rabbits. One I highly recommend is the 'Rabbit Lopaedia - A complete Guide to Rabbit Care by Meg Brown and Virginia Richardson', which can be purchased from the Fur & Feather Magazine bookshop: http://www.furandfeather.co.uk/shop.htm